Colorectal cancer

. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis in worldwide, with 1 850 000 new cases and 462 000 deaths in 2018 (Globocan 2018).

. CRC is curable when detected at the early stage.

. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for detection of small and premalignant lesions.

. In many countries, CRC screening with fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is established, typically inviting 50-74 year-olds biennially.

Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality statistics worldwide in 2018

Risk factors


How is colorectal cancer diagnosed?


 . A colonoscopy is an invasive exam and uncomfortable.      

 . It is used to detect changes or abnormalities in the large intestine(colon) and rectum.

 . During a colonoscopy, a long flexible tube (colonoscope) is inserted into the rectum. A tiny video camera at the tip of the tube allows the doctor to view the inside of the entire colon.

 . If necessary, polyps or others types of abnormal tissue (biopsies) can be removed through the scope during a colonoscopy. 

 Fecal occult blood test (FIT)

 . FIT is a stool test designed to identify possible signs of bowel disease.

 . It detects minute amounts of blood in feces (fecal occult blood).

 . If there is blood in the stool this can indicate the presence of abnormalities in the bowel.

 . Patients with a positive FIT result are referred for further investigation by colonoscopy.